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Full text of "Brice Marden : [catalogue of an exhibition], The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York"

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' BRICE MARDEN 



Published by 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 

New York, 1975 

Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number: 75-689 

© The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1975 

Printed in the United States 



Pumpkin Plum. 1970; 1973 cat. no. 13 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

President Peter O. Lawson-Johnston 

Trustees H. H. Arnason, Eleanor Countess Castle Stewart, 
Joseph W. Donner, Mason Welch Gross, Eugene 
W. Leake, Frank R. Milliken, Henry Allen Moe, 
A. Chauncey Newlin, Mrs. Henry Obre, Daniel 
Catton Rich, Albert E. Thiele, Michael F. Wettach. 



The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 

Director Thomas M. Messer 

Stall Henry Berg, Deputy Director 

Linda Konheim, Program Administrator; Agnes R. 
Connolly, Auditor; Susan L. Halper, Administrative 
Assistant; Eric Siegeltuch, Assistant for Manage- 
ment; Vanessa Jalet, Secretary to the Director; 
Darrie Hammer, Information. 

Louise Averill Svendsen, Curator; Diane Waldman, 
Curator of Exhibitions; Margit Rowell, Curator of 
Special Exhibitions; Angelica Zander Rudenstine, 
Research Curator; Linda Shearer, Assistant 
Curator; Carol Fuerstein, Editor; Mary Joan Hall, 
Librarian; Ward Jackson, Archivist; Sabine 
Rewald, Coordinator. 

Anne B. Grausam, Public Affairs Officer; Miriam 
Emden, Members' Representative; Carolyn 
Porcelli, Coordinator. 

Orrin Riley, Conservator; Lucy Belloli, Assistant 
Conservator; David Roger Anthony, Registrar; 
Elizabeth M. Funghini, Cherie A. Summers, 
Assistant Registrars; Robert E. Mates, Photog- 
rapher; Dana Cranmer, Technical Manager. 

Peter G. Loggin, Building Superintendent; Guy 
Fletcher, Jr., Assistant Building Superintendent; 
Charles F. Banach, Head Guard. 

Aaron Karp, Operations Supervisor; Saul 
Fuerstein, Preparator; Lome Swarthout, 
Carpenter; Hiram Lewis, Installation Specialist. 



Marcel Boulois, Paris 

Rosalind Constable, Sante Fe, New Mexico 

Paula Cooper, New York 

Ugo Ferranti, Rome 

Dr. and Mrs. R. J. Fusillo, Atlanta 



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Joyce Hoppner and Peter Hoppner, New York 



Mr. and Mrs. Edgar B. Howard, New York 

Nancy Gillespie Jennings, New York 

Lewis Kaplan, London 

JackH. Klein 

Brice Marden, New York 

Helen Harrington Marden, New York 

Robert Rauschenberg, New York 



Dr. and Mrs. Stacy A. Roback, Edina, Minnesota 
Paul F. Walter 



Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo 

The Fort Worth Art Museum 

The Michener Collection, The University of Texas 
at Austin 

Galerie Bischofberger, Zurich 
Bykert Gallery, New York 
Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis 
Gian Enzo Sperone, Inc., New York 




New York, 1974 



I would like to thank the many people who have 
assisted me with the preparation of this exhibition 



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and catalogue. Klaus Kertess and Mary Boone of 
the Bykert Gallery, Konrad Fischer, Yvon Lambert, 
Gordon Locksley and George Shea, and Gian 
Enzo Sperone have all been extremely helpful. The 
critic, Roberta Smith, who is writing the catalogue 
raisonne on Marden, supplied me with much 
detailed information, in addition to carefully read- 
ing the catalogue text. 

Much of the Guggenheim Museum's staff con- 
tributed a great deal of time and effort, especially 
Carol Fuerstein, the Editor, who oversaw every 
aspect of the catalogue with great skill and insight, 
and Diane Waldman, the Curator of Exhibitions, 
who graciously read the text and made valuable 
suggestions. I would also like to express my 
gratitude to Thomas Hut who provided valuable 
assistance on the preliminary stages of both the 
catalogue and exhibition. 

I am extremely indebted to Paul F. Walter for his 
generous contribution in support of the exhibition. 
The success of this exhibition, like any other, 
depends in large part upon the cooperation of the 
lenders, to whom I extend my sincere thanks. 

I am, of course, most particularly grateful to 
Brice Marden, whose remarkable patience and 
enthusiasm has made the experience of working 
with him a truly rewarding one. 

L.S. 




View of Jefferson Street studio, New York, 1966 



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Color — that's a matter of taste and sensitivity. For example, you have to have something to say; 
without that, goodnight! You aren't a painter unless you love painting more than anything else. 
And then, it's not enough just to know your trade; you have to be moved. Science is all very 
well, but for us, don't you see, imagination is more important .... 
Edouard Manet 1 

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Brice Marden has consistently professed and acknowledged his ties with traditional 

painting. He sees himself, like Manet, combining and balancing a modern sensibility 
with earlier sources, and he is, above all else, a painter. The earlier artists he ad- 
mires most are the Spanish painters — Goya, Zurbaran, Velasquez— along with Cour- 
bet, Manet and Cezanne. Of course, like most artists of his generation, he felt the 
impact of the Abstract Expressionists as well. But, one might well ask, how and where 
does this admiration show itself in his work? His paintings and drawings seem, at 
first, singularly composition-less, uniform, rigid and limited, and indeed they are 
characterized by an extreme visual constraint. This is not, however, to suggest that 
they lack aesthetic complexity. 

An intriguing and important aspect of his work is that each word chosen to de- 
scribe it almost inevitably suggests qualification by its opposite. Most critics are 
sensitive to this semantic difficulty: for example, "While Marden's paintings clearly 
show an impetus toward literalness and uniformity, his work has never been as cool 
or impersonal as strictly reductive art." 2 Rather than simply a failure of language, it 
is indeed this central contradiction which distinguishes Marden's reductive style: 
the obvious formal austerity of his work is consistently offset by a surprising emo- 
tional impact. 

Although most of his studio courses at Boston University were devoted to an in- 
tense study of the figure, it was at Yale, as a graduate student from 1961 to 1963, that 
he established the major formal and expressive priorities and objectives which he 
has maintained and continues to develop today. In the same way, the written portion 
of his Master's thesis reflects many of the thoughts he now articulates about his 



work. He became preoccupied with the confines of the rectangle, and it was at this 
time that he began to restrict and define his approach both structurally and colorist- 
ically. Vertical and horizontal subdivisions of the surface ("I became aware of an 
underlying rectilinear structure which constantly reappeared" 3 ) were reinforced by 
a subdued palette. Before arriving at Yale, his ideas about color had been confused 
by a course at Boston University based on Albers' color theories which, he claims, he 
simply had not understood. As a result, he shied away, until recently, from the com- 
monly accepted notions of color, although, ironically, now his work is frequently 
most admired for its unusual and unnameable color. It is perhaps because of Mar- 
den's attraction to a limited palette that Kline especially appealed to him (he was the 
only Abstract Expressionist Marden cited in his thesis): Kline had achieved a remark- 
able emotional and visual intensity using only black and white. Marden's interest in 
Kline led him to an awareness of the Spanish painters by way of Manet. Soon Marden 
related more to earlier artists (particularly to the earth colors of the Spaniards) and 
felt he was rejecting an Abstract Expressionist approach to color. But, as he explains 
it now, he did not realize then that the Abstract Expressionists were using color in as 
subtle a way as Manet or Goya. Witness the following section from his thesis; he 
could easily have been describing either the gestural or the color aspects of Abstract 
Expressionism: 

At the suggestion of the mid-year jury I tried to get more of the quality of my drawings into my 
paintings. This led to more exploration in the use of my materials and a loosening up of the 
handling of my paint. These involvements have led me to Spanish painting. It is with them that 
one finds an uncompromising reality. They were confronted with something and they faced up 
to it. No embellishments except the all too rare quality of humans honestly coping with them- 
selves. They did not search for "truths" but their own truth. They smack it right up in front of you 
and you have to take it. Zurbaran, Velasquez and Goya are the ones who do this.* 

Undoubtedly he chose the Spanish painters because their clarity and restraint ap- 
pealed more to him than the dramatically personal and heroic stance of the Abstract 
Expressionists. 

Despite Marden's expression of affinity for early painters, his work parallels most 
closely contemporary abstract art, particularly in that it relentlessly confronts the 
viewer with the question of meaning— what does a Marden painting mean: what is he 
trying to say? Although he is working in a reductive, non-illusionistic idiom, he does 
not formulate anonymous statements. His paintings are about the larger implications 
of paint applied to a two-dimensional surface; he believes in the expressive power 
of paint. And yet, many will invariably ask "is he saying enough?" His answer at 
Yale was one that still applies: 



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The paintings are made in a highly subjective state within Spartan limitations. Within these 
strict confines, confines which I have painted myself into and intend to explore with no regrets, 
I try to give the viewer something to which he will react subjectively. I believe these are highly 
emotional paintings not to be admired tor any technical or intellectual reason but to be felt. 5 

As Harris Rosenstein observed in 1967 when discussing Marden, David Novros and 
Paul Mogensen: "They are not throwing over painting tradition, but isolating some 
essence of that tradition and attempting to live up to its possibilities." 6 And so, Mar- 
den, the traditionalist — at least in intention, if not in appearance — left Yale in 1963 
with the awareness that painting must 1) be expressive, 2) ask questions of itself and 
of the viewer if it is to renew and regenerate that same tradition and 3) be about 
painting. 

We must, and I cannot say it too often, forget a thousand things, in order to understand and 
enjoy this talent. It is no longer a question of searching for absolute beauty; the artist paints 
neither a story nor a soul; what is generally called composition does not exist for him, and the 
task he imposes upon himself is far from that of representing such-and-such an idea or his- 
torical event. And for this reason we must judge him neither as a moralist nor as a man of let- 
ters: we must judge him as a painter. 
Emile Zola on Manet. 7 

In the summer of 1963 Marden moved to New York City where he has lived ever 
since. That same fall he became a guard at the Jewish Museum; their retrospective 
exhibition of Jasper Johns' work, held the following spring, provided Marden with the 
opportunity to study that artist in depth. Johns' paintings undoubtedly confirmed and 
supported Marden in his choice of basic direction. Presenting us with an ironic 
vision of our own sensibilities, Johns clearly was challenging the preconceived ideas 
of what Painting was all about, forcing us back on our own definitions. In his well- 
known Flag and Target paintings, Johns was able to achieve a structural and 
symbolic unity between the shape of the support and the image with a directness 
never before attained; Marden soon extended this kind of congruency through 
purely abstract or formal means. Marden responded to this element in Johns' work 
and was also extremely sensitive to his intense painterliness in surface and color. 
On the other hand, he was not interested in Johns' use of three-dimensional objects 
and specific symbols or his ironic play on language. 

Works like Gray Numbers, 1957, and Tennyson, 1958 (reproduced, exhibition cata- 
logue, The Jewish Museum, New York, 1964, nos. 20, 32), are close to Marden be- 
cause of their overall formal structure. Marden's innate preference for monotones 



11 



and grays was reinforced by the example of Johns' creation of remarkable tension 
within a relatively static, flat, two-dimensional monotone painting. Faced with the 
problem of activating the immobile and dense surface of his paintings without resort- 
ing to a decorative solution, he adopted one of Johns' techniques: he drew a line 
Vi to 1 inch above the bottom of the canvas, below which he did not apply paint. 
He did, however, allow the paint to drip below this line. Marden incorporated this 
margin into his paintings from 1964 to 1968 (see cat. nos. 2-7) when he expanded his 
format from one to two and three-panel works and no longer needed the painterly 
reference the line provided. 

In these early works of Marden's, the drips in the margins, in addition to enlivening 
the inert and passive surface, call attention to the process involved in the creation of 
the painting, by recording the many layers of pigment. These layers, in turn, convey 
a feeling of the artist's ponderous pace. As one becomes increasingly aware of the 
painting's temporal evolution, a sense of time is introduced. And, as one comes to 
recognize the time involved in the making of the work, one simultaneously experi- 
ences the time involved in the perception of the painting. Although each picture can 
be seen as a totality at a glance, in Marden's work, as in much reductive art, the per- 
ceptual process, like the painting procedure, is extremely slow. As Lucy R. Lippard 
said in relation to Ad Reinhardt: "A monotonal painting, exists, more than most, in 
time, for it takes time merely to perceive it as a painting or surface, and not as a sculp- 
tural object or silhouette." 8 But Marden was sensitive to this time factor well before 
he saw the Johns show or had painted pure monotone work. In speaking of Manet's 
Street Singer, ca. 1 862, in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, he wrote "I saw the warm 
umber and the color fell into place, it became a total color sensation. Each part built 
towards this total which came slowly, as if being mysteriously revealed. I try for this 
in my work." 9 

From Johns he also learned the great potential of the seemingly limited grid struc- 
ture. This grid structure was one approach to the point by point articulation of the sur- 
face which concerned both artists. Marden has said that Johns' grids, rather than 
those of Agnes Martin and Robert Ryman, were directly inspirational to him. In a work 
like Gray Numbers (cited above) Johns varied the strict uniformity of the grid with 
numbers, myriad tones of gray and expressive brushwork. Marden applied what he 
had absorbed from Johns' grid paintings to works of limiting format other than grid 
paintings (although he did many grid drawings, he produced only one true grid paint- 
ing, Untitled, 1964-65, cat. no. 2). It should not be forgotten, his work at Yale was 
largely based on vertical and horizontal divisions of the rectangle, so his interest in 
the grid format was part of a natural evolution. In fact, throughout his career, his 
progress has been a consistent and deliberate development, marked by almost mi- 



12 



nute variation from painting to painting, within the strictly defined limits he has set 
for himself. 

After the Johns show, Marden went to Paris for the first time. There he restricted his 
activity to drawing, in which he concentrated on breaking down the planar surfaces 
with grids. After his return to New York that fall, he made his first one-color work, 
which resulted from painting out an unresolved grid on one half of the canvas. He 
began to be disturbed by the reflective surfaces of the oil paint he had been using; 
"you simply could not see the picture" sufficiently. 10 Pair's (cat. no. 3) oil and varnish 
surface is an example of the shiny quality to which he objected. After much thought 
about how to dull the finish, his friend, the painter Harvey Quaytman, suggested mix- 
ing beeswax with oil, a solution which produced exactly the mat, opaque surface and 
increased physicality Marden wanted. He developed a method of combining the wax 
with oil which he applies in layers with a brush, laboriously reworking each layer with 
a painting spatula and knife until he is satisfied. The process further enhances the 
inherent physicality of the material by creating a surface which is marked by subtle 
imperfections and gestures made by the movement of the implement. Although Johns 
had also used wax encaustic, Marden's use of wax is not directly traceable to him, 
except perhaps as a subliminal influence. 

A comparison between Marden's individual paintings reveals variations in surface 
texture. In paintings of approximately the same time the difference is slight and of 
little consequence, but when the earlier paintings are considered in relation to the 
more recent ones, it becomes clear that some of the former are often softer and more 
luminescent, while the latter appear harder and far less porous. Not only is attention 
again focused on the physicality of the surface, but also on the process. The implica- 
tions of these texture distinctions are significant. Lacking a formula which assures 
the uniformity of his oil-wax mixture, Marden must modify his technique of applica- 
tion with each successive layer of paint on the canvas. What must at first appear to 
be a disadvantage inherent in the unpredictable amalgam of oil and hot wax becomes 
an aesthetic asset which produces brushstrokes, line and even a kind of drawing on 
the canvas. It is perhaps in this intuitive approach to process that he relates to the 
Abstract Expressionists, as opposed to the more programmatic approach of the 
Minimalists. This does not mean, of course, that Marden is an Abstract Expressionist, 
but rather suggests that he shares certain aspects of the Abstract Expressionist 
sensibility, which in turn link him to the "Post-Minimalist" generation. 

Moving toward a formal equalization of the importance of color, shape and surface 
in each painting, Marden was soon able to achieve this elusive balance, without using 
traditional compositional means. Except for the narrow horizontal band, real drawing 
was non-existent in these works; the canvas edges however function as line and serve 



13 



as the sole definition of the overall shape. The canvas shape, as well as color and sur- 
face, is crucial in Marden's painting. 11 Shape, of course, has always played a signif- 
icant role in painting: in traditional figurative or abstract art, this overall shape is 
important in relation to the forms on the canvas. However, for Marden, in whose work 
there are no painted forms, the shape of the canvas assumes even greater impor- 
tance because it is the only shape. The lack of internal forms and images compels a 
closer examination of the painted plane, its surface and the shape which contains 
them. It is in this way that Marden's work can be seen as a further development of 
Pollock's all-over painting in which composition and balancing of form was elimi- 
nated, as well as a continuation of the 20th-century tradition of achieving and affirm- 
ing the flatness of the picture plane. "As a painter I believe in the indisputability of 
The Plane" 12 and "the image becomes the plane." He uses neither a "depicted" nor 
"literal" shape, to use Michael Fried's terms: his image becomes the plane. 

Marden had established equivalence between color, surface and shape, and had 
brought his canvas to its most reductive state by 1965. He could not subdivide a work 
of this kind internally without fragmenting its unity. In order to combine colors and 
shapes and not violate the indivisible quality of his canvas, it was necessary to de- 
velop an entirely new format. Pair, 1965, is an example of his first solution to this 
problem. It consists of two 18-inch unjoined canvases placed two inches apart from 
each other; they are juxtaposed, yet still separate. Because of the interaction be- 
tween the wall and the canvases, the piece assumes a certain object-quality which 
had its precedent in Johns' relief-like Targets and Flags. However, the concept of 
combining units which are equal to each other in all respects aligns him with the 
Minimalists. But Marden did not pursue the quasi-sculptural implications of Pair 
again until 1 967. He was, and is, first and foremost, a painter. 

Marden had his first one-man show in New York at the Bykert Gallery in the fall of 
1966. All the paintings in the show were horizontal and monochrome. Some are con- 
siderably larger than his earlier work; for example, The Dylan Painting (cat. no. 4) 
measures 5 by 10 feet. He feels that this canvas, although actually an uninterrupted 
expanse, can be thought of as two contiguous squares. It is therefore, in theory at 
least, an extension of Pair. Other works in the show appear to be square, though they 
are not exactly. The curious, even awkward, proportions which Marden uses, and 
employs even today, contribute to a slight feeling of unease and discomfort in the 
presence of his painting. 

Though the canvases may seem alike in color, they all differ slightly, even minutely, 
from one another. They are always subdued and somber variations of indescribable 
grays, greens, slate-browns, clays, mud and putty — tones which blend and melt to- 
gether as we perceive them. The heaviness of the paint layers parallels the impen- 



14 





Installation view, one-man exhibition, Bykert Gallery, New York, 1966 
Announcement for one-man exhibition, Back Series, Bykert Gallery, New York, 1968 



15 



etrable quality of the dense color. The edges of all the works before 1966 were taped 
and the painted area extended under the tape: the only open, breathing space is in 
the bottom dripped margin, further emphasizing the sense of the impenetrable. The 
contrast between the dense surface and the open area of the drips does not produce 
a sense of spatial ambiguity: it is literally the flat painted surface juxtaposed against 
the support. One is tempted to describe the color as color area, but because of the 
extreme physicality of the paint and wax texture, it is more accurately characterized 
as color substance. 

Marden continued to restrict himself to monochrome painting and to explore its 
possibilities, shifting, however, from the predominantly horizontal format of his 1966 
works to a vertical one. The seven paintings of the Back Series were included in 
his next one-man show at Bykert in 1968. The prototype for the group, which had 
not started as a series, is For Helen of 1967 (cat. no. 5); it is a two-panel piece, while 
those in the actual series are all single paintings. Each section of the two-part piece, 
meant to be placed one inch apart, is based on his wife's height of 69 inches, and 
the width of her back, 17 inches. The single pictures measure 69 inches (the same 
height) by 45 inches. The width of 45 inches is arbitrary and bears no mathematical 
relation to the original 17 inches; the artist used these dimensions simply because 
he felt they were appropriate in terms of an abstract aesthetic choice. 

He introduced more color in these paintings (black, green, flesh, etc.) in an effort 
to break away from the neutrality of his earlier grays. In this respect, the Back Series 
represents a liberating step in his evolution. The balance between shape and color 
Marden had achieved in his earlier works seemed to limit his color range: he felt that 
certain canvas sizes and shapes determined the use of specific colors. He felt now 
that it had become necessary to carefully and deliberately broaden the colors he 
used. In the Back Series he broke away from the absolute determination of specific 
color by specific shape, despite his realization that he might in this manner destroy 
the intuitive Tightness of the balance of elements within each work. 

Marden's Back Series brings to mind a very different treatment of the subject by 
Matisse in The Back, l-IV (a cast of which is in the collection of The Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, New York). Matisse's reliefs of a woman's back progress from realistic depic- 
tion through abstraction to an abstracted image of the original. Although a real back 
supplied the original impetus for both artists, Marden, unlike Matisse, was not 
interested in an abstracted representation of the back. Indeed, he frequently uses a 
specific image, such as a postcard reproduction of a painting, as a starting point, but 
this image is usually retained only in the title of the work it inspires. Nonetheless, 
the Back paintings, more than most, were intended to sustain the basic reference to 
their original inspiration. The announcement for the Back Series exhibition, with its 



16 



nude photographed from the back, confirms the directness of the formal and ex- 
pressive equivalence as Marden felt it. The idea of rejection — expressed at a primitive 
and direct level by the turning of one person's back on another — is integral to these 
paintings. 

Quotes from two reviews of this show reveal the wide range of interpretation that 
his work allows: Scott Burton said "the colors, like the skin are closed; you can't look 
into them, only at them. Each color holds. They are dry paintings, full of heat, and 
have the arid, airless look of Spanish paintings (which Marden admires), but their 
austerity is extremely romantic, and they are also very sensual and beautiful." 
Gregory Battcock wrote that the paintings are "disagreeable and spurn sympathetic 
consideration. In this way they are not romantic or sentimental." 13 Clearly, whether 
they are romantic, sympathetic, sentimental or austere, they project, in an emphatic 
and moving way, a very real sense of alienation. 

The alienation and rejection expressed in the Back Series in particular, and, the 
austerity of Marden's paintings in general, recall Ad Reinhardt, many of whose stated 
ideas are like Marden's own. The parallels with Marden are obvious in the Reinhardt 
who said: 

The one work for a fine artist now, the one thing in painting to do, is to repeat the one-size- 
canvas — the single-scheme, one-colour-monochrome, one linear-division in each direction, 
one symmetry, one texture, one formal device, one free-hand brushing, one rhythm, one work- 
ing everything into one overall uniformity and non-irregularity.''* 

Reinhardt's all black paintings, for which he is best known, require a long time to 
reveal themselves to us; like Marden's, they are quiet, but dogmatic. Reinhardt util- 
izes rectangular forms which eventually become visible, creating atmospheric pic- 
torial space, which is diametrically opposed to the unequivocal flatness of the 
picture plane in Marden's work. Despite the dissimilarities in their work, singleminded- 
ness is the most dominant characteristic shared by the two artists. Their individual 
paintings seem to assert a self-containment which, at once, tends to alienate the 
viewer and yet compel a sympathetic involvement. 

By 1968, Marden began to make diptychs and triptychs joined vertically, each 
panel a different color. The transition to panel paintings was a rather obvious one, 
and yet intrinsically dangerous: he had evolved in his earlier work a coherent identity 
based on the indivisible unity of the single painting. Any additional elements might 
threaten the precarious equilibrium of color, surface and shape. The first two-panel 
painting was made up of two discarded Back Series canvases (not in exhibition, 
collection Mr. and Mrs. John Adams, Columbia, S.C.) and was joined flush; it is the 
only joined panel work with a drawn line along the bottom edge, which hereafter is 



17 



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Installation view, one-man exhibition, Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, 1969 



eliminated. This device, self-conscious in its painterliness, was intended in the single 
canvas paintings to broaden the expressive dimension of the reductive, imageless 
surface. A conflict arose in this instance, however, for when two canvases are com- 
bined, a new line is created at the vertical point of juncture. The delicate balance of 
such reduced elements— color, shape, surface, and a single line— is jeopardized by 
the juxtaposition of two panels, each containing a line just above the bottom edge. 
Without this line, which stresses the act of the painter making the drips, the paintings 
become more purely about the activity of the paint and the wax. The strength of these 
new paintings is contingent on the holding power of the once separate panels, rather 
than on an internal tension between the elements. The lower portion of the canvas, 
still not entirely covered by paint, continues to reveal a sense of process, although 
less obtrusively, because of its unfinished quality and many layers of material. The 
new handling of this area, which still serves as an anchor for the work, recalls the 
de Kooning-like brushwork in the lower portion of Marden's 1964 Decorative Painting 
(cat. no. 1). 

In the earlier Pair and For Helen, Marden had recognized that it was necessary to 
separate the panels in order not to undermine the unity of each color with its panel. 
When he combined two or three colors in one painting, it was clear to him that the 
panels must remain physically intact and separate, yet juxtaposed so that the total 
image would continue to be identified with a single plane. He worked to create paint- 
ings with several similar but distinct colors as intense, uncomplicated and indivisible 
as his monochrome works. Closely related to this aspect of indivisibility and sim- 
plification is the disturbing fact that one does not see more and more in a Marden 
(nor for that matter does one see less) as one studies it; one does, however, come to 
accept its totality more and more. Douglas Crimp has observed that a "long look at 
Marden's work results in no perceptual change at all. The surface remains the literal 
closed plane that it first appeared to be." 15 The paintings seem to stubbornly refuse 
to reveal their meaning: the observer must make the effort to penetrate their silence 
and self-contained resistance. While a perceptual change does not occur, an emo- 
tional one does; this contradiction only serves to make our experience of the paint- 
ings more complex. 

Although one does not see more as one looks, one cannot look quickly, even 
though the basic information is immediately apparent. (This is in direct contrast to 
the experiencing of a Stella painting, which can be perceived totally and accurately 
with great speed.) Unchanging, it is the painting's very reticence which compels our 
involvement; this slowness of the perceptual process was discussed in relation to his 
earlier work. One would assume that the slowness and inertness would be dissipated 
in the two and three-panel works: it would appear that in these pieces the eye 



19 



would travel from panel to panel, left to right, reading the relationships, experiencing 
the cumulative effect of the components. However, this is not the case: we can ap- 
proach the picture at any point, on any panel. The color in each panel is different 
(although not radically so), but the value of the various colors is the same, creating a 
homogeneous effect. That Marden sees "Color working as color and value simulta- 
neously" 16 helps one understand how paintings like Parks, Small Point, Number and 
Range (cat. nos. 9-11,1 8) work. 

Marden's two and three-panel pieces bear a superficial resemblance to certain of 
Ellsworth Kelly's paintings, although, in reality, they are artists of greatly differing 
sensibilities. They are frequently linked together because Kelly (on occasion) and 
Marden (invariably) make differently colored panel paintings, the components of 
which are juxtaposed to form squares or rectangles. Kelly has worked in this manner 
since the early 1950's; he does, however, also make paintings composed of panels 
of unequal size, and irregularly curved forms. Marden never deviates from the square 
or rectangle. Kelly often finds his sources in observable phenomena from which he 
abstracts his form. Marden claims, on the other hand, to "begin work with some vague 
color idea; a memory of a space, a color presence, a color I think I have seen." 17 As 
previously noted, his work is often stimulated by a postcard, a person, even a situa- 
tion, but the finished product bears only a remote associative relation to its inspira- 
tion. In Kelly's work, the strong areas of unmixed color which stand in high contrast 
to each other are in direct opposition to Marden's use of more static, muted, juxta- 
posed "painted panels." "I paint paintings in panels They are not color panels. Color 
and surface must work together. They are painted panels." 18 Marden's panels hold 
one another and achieve their identity in large part because of the lack of chromatic 
contrast; however, in a Kelly Spectrum painting, for example, the relationship be- 
tween panels is based on chromatic contrast. Marden's paintings are highly de- 
pendent on the extreme physicality of the surface with its subtle evidence of gesture; 
all traces of gesture are absent from Kelly's panels. By never losing sight of Marden's 
surface, one is always forced to see the painting's totality; Kelly's brilliant colors and 
uninflected surfaces make one acutely aware of the separation of elements. 

By the late 1960's, Marden began to introduce greater contrast of color into his 
work without, however, creating the usual optical effects of receding and expanding. 
In 1970, he began to join his panels horizontally, overcoming his reservations about 
the dangers of alluding to landscape. Urdan, 1970-71 (cat. no. 14), is an example of 
these new concerns: joined horizontally, the upper, warmer, orange panel does not 
advance in front of the lower, gray-blue one. None of the expected effects occur 
because the equal density of color, the opacity of surface and the identical shape 



20 




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j- 




- 






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H 






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1 






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L- L- 































Installation view, one-man exhibition, Konrad Fischer, Dusseldorf, 1971 
Announcement for one-man exhibition, Grove Group, Bykert Gallery, New York, 1973 



21 



of the panels mitigates against them. The central seam is rough and unfinished in 
appearance and draws attention to itself and its position on the surface, emphasizing 
and holding the plane, working against the suggestion of receding and advancing 
forms. 

Even when there is more color contrast, as in Pumpkin Plum, 1970; 1973 (cat. 
no. 13), in which two vertical outer panels of slightly dissimilar oranges frame a slate- 
gray-blue one, the color placement, the canvas shape and surface quality all combine 
to hold the painting in an integrated and unitary fashion. The precisely controlled 
symmetry does not allow movement in one direction, but rather enables the eye to 
move back and forth easily across the surface. The overall dimensions of the painting 
are 69 x 51 inches, each section measuring 69 x 17 inches — the same size as For 
Helen: they are human scale, like much of his work. The human scale establishes 
a direct confrontation between viewer and work; the paintings never overwhelm 
with their size. Works of identical overall size, comprised of panels of identical size, 
such as Blue Painting and Number, both 1972 (cat. nos. 17, 18) and both 6 by 6 feet, 
look very different according to the color Marden uses. 

Grove Group, begun in 1973, is an example of a different sort of variation of similar 
elements. It is a series of works which have the same overall dimensions of 6 by 9 
feet. However, the panels that make up these paintings are all different sizes, 
joined differently. The five are: a single canvas; two and three panels joined verti- 
cally (cat. no. 20); and two and three panels joined horizontally (the last two are in 
progress). The color, varying only in hue within each painting and from painting to 
painting, along with the constant external size, serves to unify the series. Yet, para- 
doxically, the distinctions of hue, however slight, and panel size contribute to the 
uniqueness of each individual painting. The varied gray-greens are inspired, as is 
the series itself, by an olive grove in Greece near where Marden now spends part 
of each summer. He attributes the quantity of "light, air and general brightness" in 
his newer work partly to the effect of the Mediterranean atmosphere. Even before 
his colors became less somber, surface and tonal change occured, in works like 
the more silvery Hydra group of 1972. But the color is essentially consistent with 
that in his earlier work; when he wrote in 1967 about one of his colors as a "dark 
black green seen slightly after a foggy dusk," 19 he could have been describing a 
Grove Group painting. 

Not only has the Grove Group series functioned as a summing up of his previous 
work, it has also been generally recognized as a turning point in his development. 
What we have come to identify as typical of Marden are above all those somber, 
subdued and quiet tones to which we have so much trouble affixing a name. But, after 



22 



the Grove Group, he seems determined to overturn our pre-existing notion of the 
meaning and appearance of his work. 

The next major series to evolve was the Figure paintings, 1973-74 (cat. nos. 21-24). 
The First Figure is subtitled Homage to Courbet. It was directly inspired by Goya's 
La Marquise de la Solana in the Louvre; note the Homage to Art collage (cat. no. 32) 
which incorporates three postcards of the Goya. He remembers responding to the 
rather curious placement of the figure against the landscape background; he recalls 
it as "A portrait of a severe woman standing in an awesome landscape on dainty feet 
with a big pink bow in her hair, not fooling a soul." 20 The reference to Courbet is, un- 
expectedly, in the chartreuse panel, the green of which Marden saw in a color post- 
card of the artist's The Mediterranean, ca. 1854-60 (Phillips Collection, Washington, 
D.C.). He has never seen the actual painting, but the postcard color (which surely 
must be distorted) was exactly what he was looking for. 

Marden's first real use of the primary colors occurs in the final painting of the 
series, Fourth Figure of 1974. This work led directly into the next series of four, titled 
Red, Yellow, Blue (cat. nos. 25-27). Here again, Marden seems to contradict previous 
concerns by moving away from his vision of inaccessibility through the use of pri- 
mary colors. 

One associates these colors, used abstractly and in broad area, with certain 
modern painters— particularly Mondrian, Newman and Kelly, all of them artists 
Marden admires. Newman expressed the "primary color" problem in his character- 
istically eloquent and humorous manner in relation to his own series begun in 1966, 
Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue: 

Why give in to these purists and formalists who have put a mortgage on red, yellow and blue, 
transforming these colors into an idea that destroys them as colors? 

I had, therefore, the double incentive of using these colors to express what I wanted to do — 
of making these colors expressive rather than didactic and of freeing them from the mortgage. 

Why should anybody be afraid of red, yellow and blue? 2 ' 1 

It should be noted that Newman was especially significant for younger artists, as he 
had so radically reduced and simplified painting into expansive, flat areas of color. 
Like Newman, Marden is able to use this basic color scheme and lend it a quality 
uniquely his own. 

The first painting of Marden's group is made up of three vertical panels of the 
three primaries: in the following three paintings of the same structural format he 
set out to "deviate from the standard" and overturn the established notion of these 
colors. Beyond the obvious resemblance to Kelly, the paintings seem even closer, 



23 



BB" 5 ^ 




£'» 





Installation view, one-man exhibition, Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, 1973 



in a less overt way, to Johns. Several paintings of the early 1 960's by Johns are made 
up of separate, but joined panels, on each of which is stencilled the name of a primary 
color (for example, By the Sea, 1961, reproduced, exhibition catalogue, The Jewish 
Museum, 1964, no. 58). But the color used to paint the name of the color does not 
correspond to the color named. Like Johns, Marden "names" the colors by isolating 
them and then confounding his own naming process by creating a color which is not 
a pure version of the named color. For example, the yellow in the second painting 
is murkier than in the first, the blue deeper; the shifts are slight and subtle, but con- 
stitute nonetheless a violation of the primaries. 

Unlike his earlier groups of pictures, our response to these Red, Yellow, Blue 
paintings seems dependent upon seeing them as a series. Each three-panel painting 
in the whole series seems almost to be functioning like a single panel within one three- 
panel piece. Therefore, a single painting's significance seemingly relies on its rela- 
tion to another painting in the series. Apparently coming closer to a more accessible 
vision, he continues to make the experience of his work difficult— whether or not we 
know the paintings in the series context, we are forced to deal with our preconceived 
notion of red, yellow and blue, and to define his "deviation from the standard" in our 
own minds and according to our own sensibilities. 

The work in this exhibition, which spans a ten-year period, attests to Marden's 
fundamental commitment to painting. He has continuously challenged the restric- 
tions of his medium and confronted the inherent ambiguities of his art. As the 
paintings become more resolved, the questions they pose seem more difficult, 
the contradictions more elusive. In spite of the visual austerity, the strict, almost 
dogmatic, formal limitations he has imposed upon himself, Marden's art is, above all, 
intuitive: the precarious equilibrium of elements in his work is determined by a sub- 
jective feeling for what is right. Marden's work is evolving slowly, with deeply felt — 
albeit barely perceptible— changes. It is as difficult to formulate a verbal evaluation 
of his career as it is to describe his work. Despite what may seem to be unpredictable, 
even surprising innovations— his use of primary color, for example— these develop- 
ments, when viewed in the context of his total work, fall into place as components of 
a consistent, inevitable evolution. 



26 



1. Edouard Manet, in Pierre Courthion, ed., Manet 
raconte par lui-meme et par ses amis, Geneva, 1945, - 
translation by Linda Nochlin, in Linda Nochlin, ed., 
Realism and Tradition in Art 1848-1900: Sources and 
Documents in the History of Art Series, Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1966, p. 78 

2. Lizzie Borden, "Reviews: Brice Marden, Bykert 
Gallery," Artforum, vol. XI, no. 9, May 1973, p. 76 

3. Brice Marden, unpublished Master of Fine Arts 
Thesis, Yale University, School of Art and Architecture, 
New Haven, 1963, p. 1 

4. Ibid., p. 3 

5. Ibid., pp. 3-4 

6. Harris Rosenstein, "Total and Complex," Art News, 
vol. 66, no. 3, May 1967, p. 52 

7. Emile Zola, "Une Nouvelle Maniere en peinture: 
Edouard Manet," La Revue du XIXe Siecle, January 1, 
1867, translation by Linda Nochlin, in Nochlin, op. cit., 
p. 74 

8. Lucy R. Lippard, Ad Reinhardt: Paintings, exhibition 
catalogue, The Jewish Museum, New York, 1966, p. 14 

9. Marden, op. cit., p. 2 

10. In conversation with the author. Hereafter, unless 
noted, all quotes by the artist are from conversations 
with the author 

1 1 . For the most cogent discussion of the interdepend- 
ence of color, surface and shape in Marden's work, see 



Roberta Pancoast Smith, "Brice Marden's Paintings," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 47, no. 7, May-June 1973, p. 76 

12. Brice Marden, [Statement,] Eight Contemporary 
Artists, exhibition catalogue, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, 1974, p. 46 

13. Scott Burton, "Reviews and Previews: Brice 
Marden," Art News, vol. 66, no. 10, February 1968, 
pp. 14-15; Gregory Battcock, "The Moral Integrity of 
Smudges," The New York Free Press, January 25, 1968, 
p. 10 

14. Ad Reinhardt, "Art as Art," Art International, vol. VI, 
no. 10, December 20, 1962, p. 37 

15. Douglas Crimp, "New York Letter," Art International, 
vol. XVII, no. 6, Summer 1973, p. 90 

16. Brice Marden, "Notes: A Mediterranean Painting," 
The Structure of Color, exhibition catalogue, Whitney 
Museum of American Art, New York, 1971 , p. 20 

17. Brice Marden. in Carl Andre, ed., "New in New 
York: Line Work," Arts Magazine, vol. 41, no. 7, May 
1967, p. 50 

18. Marden, "Notes: A Mediterranean Painting," p. 20 

19. Marden, "New in New York: Line Work," p. 50 

20. Brice Marden, in Bruce Kurtz, ed., "Documenta 5: 
A Critical Preview," Arts Magazine, vol. 46, no. 8, 
Summer 1972, p. 43 

21. Barnett Newman, [Statement,] Art Now: New York, 
vol. 1, no. 3, March 1969, n.p. 



27 



I prime a stretched and animal-skin glue sized 
cotton duck canvas with two coats of turps-thinned 
Flake White. When dry, I sand the surface. 

When applying color to the canvas, I mix 
standard artist's oil color (paint) with a medium of 
wax and turpentine. (To one part melted white 
refined beeswax, I add four parts pure gum spirits 
of turpentine.) This medium is kept warm (liquid) 
on a hot plate by my palette and small amounts are 
mixed in with the paint by brush just prior to apply- 
ing color to the canvas. The mixture is then applied 
to the canvas with a brush and worked over so the 
medium and paint are thoroughly mixed and evenly 
cover the shape. The paint is then worked with a 
large painting spatula and a small painting knife 
until it arrives at a satisfactory state. 

I try to keep the surfaces in one painting con- 
stant and total. There are variables. Extensive 
heating of the medium results in some evaporation 
which can make the paint gummy and softer. Left- 
over paint, with wax added, is often used in mixing 
subsequent colors. I am never exactly sure of how 
much wax is added to the oil paint in the final 
surface, but oil remains the primary binder as 
opposed to encaustic where the wax is the binder. 

Brice Marden 



28 



o 

m 

z 

X 

LU 

LU 

X 

I- 



DC 

o 




1 Decorative Painting. 1 964 



29 




30 



2 Untitled. 1964-65 




3 Pair. 1965 



31 




32 



4 The Dylan Painting. 1966 




5 For Helen. 1 967 



33 




34 



6 For Me. 1967-68 




7 Green Back Rerun. 1967-68; 1971 



35 




36 



8 Fave. 1968-69 




9 Parks (for Van Dyke Parks). 1 968-69 



37 




38 



10 Small Point. 1969 




11 Range. 1970 



39 






40 



12 Klein. 1970-72; 1974 




15 Gober. 1971 



41 




42 



17 Blue Painting. 1972 




18 Number. 1972 



43 







44 



19 Star (for Patti Smith). 1972; 1974 




20 Grove Group, 1973 



45 




46 



21 First Figure (Homage to Courbet). 1973-74 







22 Second Figure. 1974 



47 




48 



23 Third Figure. 1974 




24 Fourth Figure. 1974 



49 




50 



25 Red, Yellow. Blue I. 1974 




26 Red, Yellow, Blue //. 1974 



51 




52 



27 Red, Yellow, Blue III. 1974 



30 Untitled. 1970 53 




E IHM^KflHt' 



54 



32 Homage to Art 2. 1973 




33 Homage to Art 13. May 1974 



55 





56 



34 Painting Study. 1974 



Paintings 

Decorative Painting. 1 964 

Oil on canvas 

41% x 173/4" 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Edgar B. Howard, 

New York 

Untitled. 1964-65 

Oil on paper mounted on canvas 

20% x27%" 

Collection the artist 

Pair. 1965 

Oil with charcoal on canvas 

18 x 38": 2 panels, each 18 x 18" with 2" 

separation 

Collection Helen Harrington Marden, New York 

The Dylan Painting. 1 966 

Oil and wax on canvas 

60x120" 

Courtesy Bykert Gallery, New York 

For Helen. 1967 

Oil and wax on canvas 

69x35": 2 panels each 69 x 17" with 1" 

separation 

Collection Helen Harrington Marden, New York 

For Me. 1967-68 

Oil and wax on canvas 

69 x 45" 

Collection Robert Rauschenberg, New York 

Green Back Rerun. 1967-68; 1971 

Oil and wax on canvas 

69 x 45" 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. R. J. Fusillo, Atlanta 

Fave. 1968-69 

Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 66": 2 panels, each 72 x 33" 

The Michener Collection, The University of Texas 

at Austin 

Parks (for Van Dyke Parks). 1 968-69 

Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 99": 3 panels, each 72 x 33" 

Courtesy Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis 



* Not illustrated 



10 Small Point. 1969 

Oil and wax on canvas 
48x48": 3 panels, each 48x16" 
Collection Marcel Boulois, Paris 

11 Range. 1970 

Oil and wax on canvas 
61 x 105": 3 panels, each 61 x 35" 
Collection Joyce Hoppner and Peter Hoppner, 
New York 

12 Klein. 1970-72:1974 
Oil and wax on canvas 
33 x 22" 

Collection Jack H. Klein 

1 3 Pumpkin Plum. 1 970 ; 1 973 
Oil and wax on canvas 

69 x51":3 panels, each 69 x 17" 
Collection Helen Harrington Marden, New York 

14 * Urdan. 1970-71 

Oil and wax on canvas 

70 x 61 ": 2 panels, each 35 x 61 " 
Collection The Fort Worth Art Museum 

15 Gober. 1971 

Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 36": 2 panels, each 36 x 36" 

Courtesy Gian Enzo Sperone Inc., New York 

16 * Smith. 1971 

Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 36": 2 panels, each 36 x 36" 

Private Collection, Milan 

1 7 Blue Painting. 1 972 
Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 72": 3 panels, each 72 x 24" 
Collection Lewis Kaplan, London 

18 Number. 1972 

Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 72": 3 panels, each 72 x 24" 

Courtesy Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis 

19 Sfar (tor Patti Smith). 1972; 1974 
Oil and wax on canvas 

68 x 45": 3 panels, each 68 x 15" 
Collection the artist 

20 Grove Group. 1973 
Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 108": 3 panels, each 72 x 36" 
Collection Paula Cooper, New York 



57 



21 First Figure (Homage to Courbet). 1973-74 
Oil and wax on canvas 

75 x 30": 3 panels, each 25 x 30" 
Collection the artist 

22 Second Figure. 1974 
Oil and wax on canvas 

75 x 30": 3 panels, each 25 x 30" 
Collection Paul F.Walter 

23 Third Figure. 1974 

Oil and wax on canvas 

75 x 30": 3 panels, each 25 x 30" 

Private Collection, New York 

24 Fourth Figure. 1974 
Oil and wax on canvas 

75 x 30": 3 panels, each 25 x 30" 

Courtesy Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis 

25 Red, Yellow, Blue I. 1974 
Oil and wax on canvas 

74 x 72": 3 panels, each 74 x 24" 

Collection Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, The 

James S. Ely Fund 

26 fled. Yellow, Blue II. 1 974 
Oil and wax on canvas 

74 x 72": 3 panels, each 74 x 24" 
Collection Dr. and Mrs. Stacy A. Roback, 
Edina, Minnesota 

27 fled, Yellow, Blue III. 1974 
Oil and wax on canvas 

74 x 72": 3 panels, each 74 x 24" 
Collection the artist 

28 * Grove Group. 1974-75 

Oil and wax on canvas 

72 x 108": 2 panels, each 36 x 108" 

Courtesy Bykert Gallery, New York 



Drawings 

29 * Two Studies, Back Series. 1967 

Graphite and pastel on paper 

23 x 31 " 

Collection Rosalind Constable, Santa Fe, 

New Mexico 

30 Untitled. W0 

Graphite and wax on paper 

22% x31" 

Courtesy Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis 

31 * Grove Addenda (Delphi). 1973 

Collage of leaf on paper 
30 x 22% " 
Collection the artist 

32 Homage to Art 2. 1 973 

Collage of postcards, graphite and wax on paper 

30 1 /4 x 20% " 

Collection Ugo Ferranti, Rome 

33 Homage to Art 13. May 1 974 

Collage of postcards, graphite and wax on paper 

30 1 /4 x20%" 

Collection Nancy Gillespie Jennings, New York 

34 Painting Study. 1974 
Graphite and wax on paper 
22'/4 x 30" 

Courtesy Galerie Bischofberger, Zurich 

35 * Untitled. 1974 

Ink on paper 
13% x17" 
Collection the artist 






58 




•», — I < 



Announcement for one-man exhibition, Bykert Gallery, New York, 1970 



59 



1938 Born Bronxville, New York 

Raised Briarcliff Manor, New York 

1957-58 Attended Florida Southern College, Lakeland 

Fall 1958 - Spring 1961 Boston University School of Fine and Applied Arts; 
received Bachelor of Fine Arts 

(3 

Summer 1961 Yale Norfolk Summer School of Music and Art, 
Norfolk, Connecticut 

Fall 1961 -Spring1963 Yale University, School of Art and Architecture, 
New Haven, received Masters of Fine Arts 

Summer 1963 Moved to New York City 

Fall 1963 - Spring 1964 Worked as a guard at Jewish Museum, New York 

December 1963 - January 1964 First one-man show, The Wilcox Gallery, Swarth- 

more College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 

Spring and Summer 1964 First trip to Paris, draws there 

Winter 1964 First one-panel monochromatic paintings 

Fall 1966 First one-man show in New York, Bykert Gallery; 
became general assistant to Robert Rauschenberg 

Winter 1968 First two and three-panel paintings 

1969-1974 Painting instructor, The School of Visual Arts, 
New York 

Currently lives and works in New York 



60 



CO 



By the Artist 

Andre, Carl, ed., "New in New York: Line Work," 
Arts Magazine, vol. 41, no. 7, May 1967, pp. 49-50 

"Three Deliberate Greys for Jasper Johns," Art 
Now: New York, vol. 3, no. 1 , March 1 971 , n.p. 

Sharp, Willoughby, ed., "Points of View: A Taped 
Conversation with 4 Painters," Arts Magazine, 
vol. 45, no. 3, December/January 1971, pp. 41-42 

"Notes: A Mediterranean Painting," The Structure 
of Color, exhibition catalogue, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1971, p. 20 

[Cover design,] Coolidge, Clark, The So, New 
York, 1971 

[Statement,] Invitational, exhibition catalogue, 
University Art Gallery, University of Massachu- 
setts, Amherst, 1971, n.p. Also includes partial 
reprint "Three Deliberate Greys for Jasper 
Johns," 1971, listed above. 

Kurtz, Bruce, ed., [Statement,] "Documenta 5: A 
Critical Preview," Arts Magazine, vol. 46, no. 8, 
Summer 1972 p. 43 

[Statement,] "Options and Alternatives: Some 
Directions in Recent Art," exhibition catalogue, 
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, 1973, n.p. 

[Statement,] Eight Contemporary Artists, exhibi- 
tion catalogue, The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1974, p. 46. Also includes, p. 44, partial 
reprint statement, "Options and Alternatives," 

1973, listed above. 

Suicide Notes, Editions des Massons, Lausanne, 

1974. Facsimile of notebook 

[Reproduction on cover,] The Paris Review, Winter 
1974, no. 60 



61 



On the Artist 

Lippard. Lucy R., "The Silent Art," Art in 
America, vol. 55, no. 1, January-February 1967, 
pp. 58-63 

Rosenstein, Harris, "Total and Complex," Art 
News, vol. 66, no. 3, May 1967, pp. 52-54, 67-68 

Battcock, Gregory, ed., Minimal Art: A Critical 
Anthology, New York, 1968, ill. p. 433, no text 

Ashton, Dore, "Young Abstract Painters: Right 
On!," Arts Magazine, vol. 44, no. 4, February 
1970, pp. 31-35 

Muller, Gregoire, "After the Ultimate," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 44, no. 5, March 1970, pp. 28-31 

Ashbery, John, "Grey Eminence," Art News, vol. 
71, no. 1, March 1972, pp. 26-27, 64-66 

Muller, W. K., "Prints and Multiples," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 46, no. 5, March 1972, pp. 26-27. 
Photographic essay 

Pincus-Witten, Robert, "Ryman, Marden, Manzoni: 
Theory, Sensibility, Mediation," Artforum, vol. X, 
no. 10, June 1972, pp. 50-53 

Ratcliff, Carter, "Once More with Feeling," Art 
News, vol. 71 , no. 4, Summer 1 972, pp. 35-37, 67-69 

Boice, Bruce, "The Quality Problem," Arttorum, 
vol. XI, no. 2, October 1972, pp. 68-70 

Smith, Roberta Pancoast, "Brice Marden's Paint- 
ings," Arts Magazine, vol. 47, no. 7, May-June 
1973, pp. 30-41 

Gilbert-Rolfe, Jeremy, "Brice Marden's Paintings," 
Arttorum, vol. XIII, no. 2, October 1974, pp. 30-38 



One Man Exhibitions and Reviews 

The Wilcox Gallery, Swarthmore College, Swarth- 
more, Pennsylvania, December 6, 1963-January 6, 
1964 

Bykert Gallery, New York, November 15-Decem- 

ber 8, 1966. Poster announcement 

Andre, Carl, "Two Part Review," 57th Street 
Review, November 15, 1966, insert after p. 6 
Goldin, Amy, "Brice Marden," 57th Street 
Review, November 15, 1966, p. 7 
G[ollin], J[ane], "Reviews and Previews," Art 
News, vol. 65, no. 7, November 1966, p. 15 



G[oldin], A[my], "Reviews and Previews: Brice 
Marden," Art News, vol. 65, no. 8, December 
1966, p. 14 

Glueck, Grace, "Brice Marden," The New York 
Times, December 3, 1966, p. 37 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Brice Marden/ Back 
Series, January 6-31, 1968. Poster announcement 
Perreault, John, "Art," The Village Voice, 
January 18, 1968, p. 36 
Battcock, Gregory, "The Moral Integrity of 
Smudges," The New York Free Press, January 
25, 1968, p. 10 

"Brice Marden Art in New York," Time Maga- 
zine, January 26, 1968 

B[urtonJ, S[cottj, "Reviews and Previews: Brice 
Marden," Art News, vol. 66, no. 10, February 
1968, pp. 14-15 

Picard, Lil, "Brief aus New York," Das 
Kunstwerk, vol. 5-6, no. XXI, February-March 

1968, p. 77 

Wasserman, Emily, "Brice Marden," Arttorum, 
vol. VI, no. 7, March 1968, pp. 57-58 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Drawings by Brice 
Marden, November 30, 1968-January 2, 1969. 
Announcement 

B[runelle], A[l], "Reviews and Previews: Brice 
Marden," Art News, vol. 67, no. 9, January 1 969, 
p. 24 

Ashton, Dore, "New York Commentary," Studio 
International, vol. 177, no. 908, February 1969, 
p. 95 

Bykert Gallery, New York, New Paintings, April 
26-May 17, 1969. Poster announcement 

R[osenstein], H[arris], "Reviews and Previews: 
Brice Marden," Art News, vol. 68, no. 3, May 

1969, p. 69 

Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, September 25- 

October 25, 1969. Announcement 

Peppiatt, Michael, "Paris," Art International, 
vol. XIII, no. 9, November 1969, p. 56 

Galerie Frangoise Lambert, Milan, January 30- 
February 15, 1970 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Bnce Marden, October 
31-November 26, 1970. Announcement 

Gruen, John, "Brice Marden," New York Maga- 
zine, November 30, 1970, p. 57 



62 



Glueck, Grace, "From Master to Modular: New 
York Gallery Notes," Art in America, vol. 58, no. 
6, November-December 1970, pp. 167-168 
R[atcliff], C[arter], "Reviews and Previews," Art 
News, vol. 69, no. 8, December 1970, p. 58 
Domingo, Willis, "Robert Mangold and Brice 
Marden," Arts Magazine, vol. 45, no. 3, Decem- 
ber 1970/January 1971 , p. 58 
Masheck, Joseph, "Brice Marden, Bykert Gal- 
lery," Artforum, vol. IX, no. 5, January 1971, 
p. 72 

Ratcliff, Carter, "New York Letter," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. XV, no. 2, February 20, 1971, p. 69 

Konrad Fischer, Dusseldorf, Brice Marden, Bilder 
und Zeichnungen, May 18-June 7, 1971. Post-card 
announcement 

Galleria Gian Enzo Sperone, Turin, opened June 
11, 1971. Announcement 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Sn'ce Marden, February 

5- March 1, 1972. Announcement 

Wolmer, Denise, "In the Galleries," Arts Maga- 
zine, vol. 46, no. 6, April 1972, p. 65 
Ratcliff, Carter, "New York Letter," Art Interna- 
tional, vol. XVI, no. 4, April 20, 1972, p. 31 

Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis, Sn'ce 
Marden: New Paintings, April 21-May 12, 1972 

Konrad Fischer, Dusseldorf, June 1973. 
Announcement 

Jack Glenn Gallery, Corona del Mar, California, 
February 3-March 2, 1973. Poster announcement 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Brice Marden, New 
Paintings: Grove Group, February 24-March 22, 
1973. Announcement 

Hess, Thomas B., "Exhibitions Noted," New 
York Magazine, March 19, 1973, p. 75 
Siegel, Jeanne, "Reviews and Previews," Art 
News, vol. 72, no. 4, April 1973, p. 79 
Borden, Lizzie, "Reviews: Brice Marden, Bykert 
Gallery," Artforum, vol. XI, no. 9, May 1973, pp. 
76-77 

Anderson, Alexandra C, "Brice Marden at 
Bykert," Art in America, vol. 61 , no. three, May- 
June 1973, pp. 99-100 

Mayer, Rosemary, "Attitudes Toward Materials, 
Content and the Personal," Arts Magazine, vol. 
47, no. 7, May-June 1973, pp. 63-66 



Crimp, Douglas, "New York Letter," Art Inter- 
national, vol XVII, no. 6, Summer 1973, pp. 89-90 

Konrad Fischer, Dusseldorf, July 1973. 
Announcement 

G[ruterich], M[arlis], "Brice Marden," Heute 

Kunst, no. 3, October 1973, p. 29 

Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, Brice Marden, Sep- 
tember 18-October 18, 1973. Poster announcement 

Cane, Louis, "Brice Marden," Peinture, Cahiers 

Theoriques, no. 819, pp. 46-49 

Galerie Frangoise Lambert, Milan, Sn'ce Marden: 
Disegni, October 19-November 19, 1973. 
Announcement 

Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Brice 
Marden Drawings, 1964-1974, January 24-March 
10, 1974; Gallery of the Loretta-Hilton Center, 
Webster College, St. Louis, March 31-April 27; 
Bykert Gallery, New York, October 19-November 
1, 1974; The Fort Worth Art Museum, November 
10, 1974-January 5, 1975; The Minneapolis Insti- 
tute of Arts, January 15-March 1, 1975. Individual 
announcements; text by Dore Ashton, "Brice 
Marden: Drawings 1963-1973," Forf Worth Star- 
Telegram, November 1 0, 1 974, p. 25 A, sponsored 
by Fort Worth Art Museum in conjunction with the 
exhibition 

Smith, Roberta, "Brice Marden, Bykert Gallery," 
Artforum, vol. XIII, no. 5, January 1975, pp. 63-64. 

Bykert Gallery, New York, New Paintings, Brice 
Marden, March 23-April 17, 1974. Announcement 
Shorr, Harriet, "Brice Marden at Bykert," Art in 
America, vol. 62, no. 3, May-June 1974, pp. 
104-105 

Gilbert-Rolfe, Jeremy, "Brice Marden," Art- 
forum, vol. XII, no. 10, June 1974, pp. 68-69 
Herrera, Hayden, "Reviews and Previews: Brice 
Marden," Art News, vol. 73, no. 6, Summer 1974, 
pp. 110-111 

Cirrus Gallery, Los Angeles, 72 Etchings by Brice 
Marden, May 7-31, 1974. Announcement 

The Jared Sable Gallery, Toronto, Brice Marden, 
September 14-28, 1974. Announcement 

Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis, October 25- 
November 15, 1974 



63 



Larson, Philip, "Minneapolis: Brice Marden at 
Locksley/Shea," Arts Magazine, vol. 49, no. 5, 
January 1975, p. 23 

Group Exhibitions and Reviews 

Lyman Allen Museum, New London, Connecticut, 
The Second Competitive Drawing Exhibition, 
March 6-27, 1960 

Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, Drawings (Benefit 
tor the Foundation tor The Contemporary 
Performance Arts), December 14, 1965-January 
5, 1966 

Park Place Gallery, New York, Group, June 12- 

July 1966. Announcement 

Lippard, Lucy R., "Rejective Art," Art Inter- 
national, vol. X, no. 8, October 20, 1966, 
pp. 33-36 

Ithaca College Museum of Art, Ithaca, New York, 
Drawings 1967, January 17-February 25, 1967. 
Catalogue texts by Daniel Gorski and Gretel Leed 

Krannert Art Museum, College of Fine and Applied 
Arts, University of Illinois, Champaign, Contem- 
porary American Painting and Sculpture 1967, 
March 5-April 9, 1967. Catalogue introduction by 
Aliens. Weller 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Group, May 16-June 12, 

1967. Poster announcement 

Lippard, Lucy R., "Rebelliously Romantic," The 
New York Times, June 4, 1967, p. 25 D 
R[osenstein], H[arris], "Reviews and Previews: 
Bykert," Art News, vol. 66, no. 4, Summer 1967, 
p. 66 

K[osuth], J[oseph], "In the Galleries," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 41 , no. 8, Summer 1967, pp. 58-59 

Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia, 
A Romantic Minimalism, September 13-October 
11, 1967. Exhibition organized and catalogue 
introduction by Stephen S. Prokopoff 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Group, November 15- 

December 7, 1967 

Rose, Barbara, "New York: Group Show, 
Bykert," Artforum, vol. VI, no. 3, November 1967, 
p. 59 



Rejective Art, exhibition organized by Lucy R. 
Lippard, circulated by The American Federation 
of Arts to University of Omaha, Nebraska, Novem- 
ber 9-30, 1967; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 
December 14, 1967-January 4, 1968; School of 
Architecture, Clemson University, Clemson, South 
Carolina, January 19-February 9, 1968 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Painting and Sculpture, 
May 25-June 22, 1968. Announcement 

Perreault, John, "Art," The Village Voice, 

June 13, 1968, p. 15 

Carmen Lamanna Gallery, Toronto, "New York 
Now," December 20, 1968-January 7, 1969. 
Announcement 

Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, New 
York, Concept, April 30-June 11, 1969. Exhibition 
organized by art history students under super- 
vision of Mary Delahoyd; catalogue essays by 
Mary Delahoyd and Lawrence Alloway 

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, Prospect 69, 
September 30-October 12, 1969. Newspaper 
catalogue 

The Fort Worth Art Museum, Texas, Drawings: An 
Exhibition of American Drawings, October 28- 
November 30, 1969. Catalogue 

Carmen Lamanna Gallery, Toronto, Scenic Land- 
marks of New York presents a Scenic Landmark 
for Toronto, November 21 -December 9, 1969. Two- 
man exhibition with David Diao. Announcement 
Kritzwiser, Kay, "Other Galleries," Toronto 
Globe and Mail, November 29, 1969, p. 26 
Sable, Jared, "Objects of Contemplation," 
Toronto Telegram, November 29, 1969, p. 4 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 
7969 Annual Exhibition: Contemporary American 
Painting, December 16, 1969-February 1, 1970. 
Catalogue foreword by John I. H. Baur 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Brice Marden/ Bob 
Duran, February 3-26, 1970. Announcement 
Rfatcliff), C[arter], "Reviews and Previews," 
Art News, vol. 69, no. 1, March 1970, p. 63 
N[emser], Cjindy], "In the Galleries: Marden 
and Duran at Bykert," Arts Magazine, vol. 44, 
no. 5, March 1970, p. 62 



64 



Wasserman, Emily, "New York," Artforum, vol. 
VIII, no. 8, April 1970, p. 79 
Ratcliff, Carter, "New York Letter," Art Inter- 
national, vol. XIV, no. 5, May 20, 1970, p. 76 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and 
Design, Smithsonian Institution, New York, The 
Drawing Society ot New York Regional Exhibition: 
1970, March 9-May 9, 1970. Exhibition organized 
by Eila Kokkinen, Marcia Tucker, Diane Waldman, 
Elaine Dee. Catalogue introduction by James 
Biddle; essay by Robert Motherwell. Circulated 
nationally, fall 1970-fall 1971, under the auspices 
of The American Federation of Arts 

Glueck, Grace, "Drawings by All-Star Cast," 
The New York Times, March 21 , 1 970, p. 25 

Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis, Bn'ce 
Marden-Jo Baer: Major Works, March 20-April 11, 
1970 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, 
Modular Painting, April 21 -May 24, 1970. Exhibition 
organized and catalogue by Robert Murdock; 
foreword by Gordon M. Smith 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Group, May 19-June20, 
1970. Announcement 

Michael Walls Gallery, San Francisco, Uses of 
Structure in Recent American Painting, July 15- 
August 22, 1970. Announcement 

Richardson, Brenda, "Reports: Bay Area 
Surveys," Arts Magazine, vol. 45, no. 1 , 
September/October 1970, p. 52 

Fondation Maeght, St. Paul-de-Vence, L'art vivant 
aux Etats-Unis, July 16- September 30, 1970. 
Exhibition organized and catalogue essay by 
Dore Ashton 

Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris, American Drawings, 
September 1970. Post card invitation 

Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt 
Lake City, Drawings by New York Artists, Novem- 
ber 28, 1970-January 12, 1971; Henry Gallery, 
University of Washington, Seattle, March 3-26, 
1972; University Art Collections, Arizona State 
University, Tempe, May 10-June 12, 1972; Georgia 
Museum of Art, University of Georgia, Athens, 
July 2-August 6, 1972. Exhibition selected and 
catalogue introduction by Dore Ashton 



Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, The 
Structure of Color, February 25-April 18, 1971. 
Exhibition organized and catalogue by Marcia 
Tucker; statement by Marden 

The Minnesota Museum of Art, St. Paul, Drawings 
USA/71, April 15-June 27, 1971. Catalogue 
prefaces by Malcolm E. Lein and Cleve Gray 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Group, May 18-June 22, 
1971. Announcement 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Drawings and Prints, 
November 6-December 2, 1971. Announcement 
Borden, Lizzie, "New York: Group Drawing 
Show," Artforum, vol. X, no. 6, February 1972, 
p. 88 

University Art Gallery, University of Massachu- 
setts, Amherst, Invitational, December 3-24, 1971. 
Exhibition and catalogue organized by graduates 
in studio art. Text of quotes from the artists, H. W. 
Janson and Lucy R. Lippard, compiled by Lucy R. 
Lippard, statement by Marden and partial reprint 
of Art Now statement, 1971, see By the Artist, 
listed above 

Art Gallery, University of Rochester, New York, 
Aspects ot Current Painting—New York, Decem- 
ber 6-30, 1971. Announcement 

Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, White on 
White: The White Monochrome in the 20th Cen- 
tury, December 18, 1971 -January 30, 1972. Exhibi- 
tion organized and catalogue foreword by Stephen 
S. Prokopoff; essay by Robert Pincus-Witten 

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Painting: New 
Options, April 23-June4, 1972. Catalogue intro- 
duction by Dean Swanson; text by Philip Larson 

Indianapolis Museum of Art, Painting and Sculp- 
ture Today 1972, April 26-June 4, 1972. Marden 
not included in catalogue 

University Art Museum, Berkeley, Eight New York 
Painters, May 10-June 25, 1972. Exhibition 
organized by Brenda Richardson 

John Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco, Ten Days: 
A Portfolio of 8 Etchings, June 7-July 8, 1972. 
Announcement 

The Art Institute of Chicago, 70th American 
Exhibition, June 24-August 20, 1972 



65 



Museum Fridericianum and Neue Galerie, Kassel, 
Germany, Documents 5. June 30-October 8, 1972. 
"Idea" section organized by Konrad Fischer and 
Klaus Honnef; Catalogue section 17, pp. 61-62 
Kramer, Hilton, "Art: German Documenta," 
The New York Times, July 1, 1972, p. 11 
Kramer, Hilton, "Of the Neo-Dadaists," 
The New York Times, July 9, 1972, p. 15 
Borden, Lizzie, "Cosmologies," Artforum, vol. 
XI, no. 2, October 1972, pp. 45-50 
Ratcliff, Carter, "Adversary Spaces," Artforum, 
vol. XI, no. 2, October 1972, pp. 40-44 

28 rue de Paradis, Paris, Yvon Lambert, Actualite 
d'un bilan, October 29-December 15, 1972. 
Exhibition and catalogue organized by Yvon 
Lambert and Michel Claura 

Bykert Gallery, New York, Group Show, January 

6-24, 1973 

Mayer, Rosemary, "Reviews— New York," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 47, no. 5, March 1973, p. 72 

Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 
1973 Biennial Exhibition: Contemporary American 
Art, January 10-March 18, 1973. Catalogue 
Goldberg, Lenore; Kim, Whee; Smith, Roberta 
Pancoast; Stitelman, Paul, "The Whitney Bien- 
nial: Four Views," Arts Magazine, vol. 47, no. 5, 
March 1973, pp. 63-66 

Gentofte Radhus, Gentofte Copenhagen, Yngre 
amerikansk kunst Tegninger og gratik: Young 
American Artists: Drawings and Graphics: Neues 
aus USA Zeichnungen und Graphik, January 24- 
February 11, 1973; Aarhus Kunstmuseum, Arhus, 
Denmark, February 18-March 4; Henie-Onstad 
Kunstsenter, Hovikodden, Oslo, March 15-April 15; 
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, April 28-June 
11; Moderna Museet, Stockholm, September 15- 
October 31 ; Amerika Haus, Berlin. Exhibition 
organized by Steingrim Laursen; catalogue text by 
Pierre Apraxine, in Danish, English, German 

Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Options 
and Alternatives: Some Directions in Recent Art, 
April 4-May 16, 1973. Exhibition organized by 
students under supervision of Anne Coffin Hanson. 
Catalogue preface by Alan Shestack; texts by 
Anne Coffin Hanson, Klaus Kertess, Annette 
Michelson; Marden biography and bibliography by 
Susan Warren; statement by Marden, n.p. 



16 Place Vendome, Paris, Une Exposition de 
peinture reunissant certains peintres qui met- 
traient la peinture en question. May 29-June 23, 
1973. Exhibition and catalogue organized by 
Michel Claura and Rene Denizot 

Rosenbloom, P[aul] A., "Group Show," Studio 
International, vol. 186, no. 958, September 1973, 
pp. 103-104 

Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 
American Drawings 1963-1973, May 25-July 22, 
1973. Exhibition organized and catalogue essay 
by Elke M. Solomon 

Seattle Art Museum Pavilion, American Art: Third 
Quarter Century, August 22-October 14, 1973. 
Catalogue text by Jan van der Marck 

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, Prospect 73: 
Maler, Painters, Peintres, September 28-October 
7, 1973. Exhibition organized by Evelyn Weiss, 
Konrad Fischer, Jurgen Harten, Hans Strelow in 
conjunction with Kunstverein fur die Rheinlande 
und Westfalen. Catalogue introduction by Hans 
Strelow, checklist, slides 

Centro Communitaro di Brera, Milan, Arte come 
Arte, April-May 1973. Catalogue introduction by 
Cornelio Brandini, texts by Douglas Crimp and 
Germano Celant 

Parcheggio di Villa Borghese, Rome, Contem- 
poreneo, November 1973-February 1974. Exhibi- 
tion organized by Incontri Internazionali d'Arte; 
Catalogue preface by Graziella Lonardi, art 
section edited by Achille Bonito Oliva, pp. 48-49 

Bykert/ Downtown, New York, Etchings and Draw- 
ings, Brice Marden: Paintings, David Novros, 
February 9-March 2, 1974. Announcement 

Some Recent American Art, organized by The 
International Council of The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, traveled to National Gallery of 
Victoria, Melbourne, February 12-March 10, Art 
Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, April 5- 
May 5, Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide, 
May 31-June 30, West Australian Art Gallery, 
Perth, July 26-August 21 , City of Auckland Art 
Gallery, Auckland, October 14-November 17, 1974. 
Catalogue by Jennifer Licht, reprint of statement, 
Options and Alternatives, Yale University, New 
Haven, 1973, see By the Artist, listed above 



66 



Susan Caldwell Inc., New York, Group, February 
23-March 20, 1974. Announcement 

Westfalischer Kunstverein, Munster, Germany, 
Geplante Malerei, March 30-April 28, 1974. Ex- 
hibition organized and catalogue essay by Klaus 
Honnef; Marden, pp. 397-399 

Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Five 
Artists: A Logic of Vision, May 4-June 23, 1974. 
Exhibition organized and catalogue by Stephen S. 
Prokopoff. Expanded version of catalogue text, 
Arts Magazine, vol. 49, no. 1, September 1974, 
pp. 45-47 

The Katonah Gallery, New York, New Painting: 
Stressing Surface, June 1-Juiy 14, 1974. Catalogue 
introduction by Klaus Kertess 

Michael Walls Gallery, New York, Ten Painters in 
New York, June 15-July 6, 1974. Announcement 
Bell, Jane, "Ten Painters in New York," Arts 
Magazine, vol. 49, no. 2, October 1974, p. 62 

University Art Museum, Berkeley, The Bay Area 
Coilects: Sandra and Breck Caldwell, July 3- 
August 11, 1974. Exhibition organized and 
catalogue by Brenda Richardson 

New York Cultural Center, New York, Prints from 
the Untitled Press, August 10-September 15, 1974. 
Catalogue 

Whitney Museum of American Art, Downtown 
Branch, New York, Continuing Abstraction in 
American Art, September 19-November 1, 1974. 
Exhibition and catalogue organized by Richard 
Armstrong, Richard Marshall and William Zimmer 
of the Whitney Museum's Independent Study 
Program 
Schjeldahl, Peter, "New Abstract Painting: 
A Variety of Feelings," The New York Times, 
October 13, 1974, Arts and Leisure Section, 
p. 29 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Works 
from Changes Inc., September 25-November 22, 
1974. Exhibition organized by The Art Lending 
Service 

Nemy, Enid, "Artists' Families Needing Aid Get 
It From Rauschenberg's Group," The New York 
Times, September 25, 1 974, p. 46 



The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Eight Con- 
temporary Artists, October 9, 1 974-January 5, 
1975. Exhibition and catalogue organized by 
Jennifer Licht 

Russell, John, "8 of Today's Artists Exhibit at 

the Modern," The New York Times, October 9, 

1974, p. 52 

Bourdon, David, "The Mini-Conceptual Age," 

The Village Voice, October 17, 1974, pp. 40, 43 

Hess, Thomas B., "Rules of the Game, Part II: 

Marden and Rockburne," New York Magazine, 

November 11, 1974, pp. 101-102 

Hughes, Robert, "Eight Cool Contemporaries," 

Time Magazine, November 11, 1974, pp. 98, 100 

Scottish Arts Council Gallery, Edinburgh, Painting 
Exhibition, October 26-November 17, 1974. 
Announcement 

Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, New 
York, November 18-December 21, 1974. Checklist 

Susan Caldwell Inc., New York, 22 Artists, Jan- 
uary 4-25, 1975. Announcement; selected by David 
Novros 

M. Knoedler & Co., New York, Etchings: William 
Bailey and Brice Marden, January 7-24, 1975 



67 



Works in the exhibition 

Courtesy Galerie Bischofberger, Zurich: no. 34 

Geoffrey Clements, New York: nos. 8, 9 

Alfio di Bella, Rome: no. 32 

Jerome Drown, Atlanta: no. 7 

Courtesy Locksley Shea Gallery, Minneapolis: 
nos. 18, 24-27,30 



LU 
DC 
O 

o 

Robert E. Mates and Mary Donlon, New York: 
nos. 1-6, 12, 13, 17,20, 22, 23,33 



Andre Morain, Paris: no. 10 
Nathan Rabin, New York: nos. 11, 21 
Steven Sloman, New York: no. 19 



Photographs in the text 



< 

o 
o 

Courtesy Gian Enzo Sperone, Turin: no. 15 

o 

X 

Rudolph Burckhardt: p. 8 
Guy and Elizabeth, New York: p. 15 
Courtesy Brice Marden: p. 21 
Andre Morain, Paris: pp. 18, 24-25 
Eric Pollitzer, New York: p. 15 
Nathan Rabin, New York: p. 21 

Supplementary Photographs 

Courtesy Brice Marden: p. 59 
Andrew Strait, New York: p. 6 

Cover photograph courtesy Locksley Shea 
Gallery, Minneapolis 



68 



Exhibition 75/2 

2,000 copies of this catalogue designed by 
Malcolm Grear Designers have been typeset by 
Dumar Typesetting, Inc. and printed by The 
Meriden Gravure Company in February 1975 
for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Foundation on the occasion of the exhibition 
Brice Marden